AFI112Document Examination and Contract Review in Audit and Investigation


This course equips participants with the relevant document review skills to uncover questionable and fictitious accounting vouchers and commercial documents. Participants will also be exposed to contract review and examination of forged and “photoshopped” signatures, and fake Chinese company stamps.


Course Fee SGD 580
Course Duration 1 Day
Course Timing 9:00am - 5:00pm
Course Venue M Hotel or similar
SDF Approved NA
Skills Future Credit NA
Upcoming Courses

Almost all successful and solid-grounded audit and investigation are done with effective document review. In the business world where complex documentation and information systems are common, the days for auditor to rely on traditional vouching and ticking for signature to discover fraud or audit findings are long gone. Effective document review calls for a paradigm shift in looking at business transactions and documentation. It propels auditors to think logically, dig further and discover the true meaning of a signature, a piece of agreement, delivery order, expense form, invoice, or even board resolution.

This course equips participants with the relevant document review skills to uncover fraud and errors hidden behind questionable documents, contracts, company stamps and signatures. Examples in real cases like Asia Brewery, Barring Bank, SLA etc will be discussed in the course. Content rich case studies adapted from real fraud event are included in this course. Participants will be invited to examine questionable documents from the case.

On completion of this program participants will:

  • Acquire the overall concept of document review in auditing and investigation
  • Better equipped to identify fictitious documents and forged signatures
  • Understand the basic rules governing documentary evidence
  • Able to perform effective document in audit, investigation and other financial review
  • Gain knowledge on common detection techniques of fraud/ wrongdoing

1. Importance of Document Review

  • Prove your case - Mens Rea + Actus Reus
  • Transgression Demonstration (5W1H)
  • Deception Demonstration (Trends)

2. Overview of Document Review

  • Scientific vs Content Review - ESDA, etc
  • Common Internal Documents - P2P and O2C, Cash and Non-cash transaction, Employee Common External Documents – Public documents, Government documents, Online
  • Identification (5W1H) - “Head & shoulder, Knee & toes”
  • Non-conformation – (Rules, facts, logic divergence)

3. MCAFE Review to identify fake, created, altered and forged documents

  • MCAFÉ Findings
  • Formatting, Content, Language, Physical (Internal)
  • Rules, Facts, Logic (External)
  • Black Swan - Absent of normal & Present of abnormal

4. Overview of Contract Components and Risks

  • Integrals of Contracts
  • Offer, Acceptance, Consideration, Intention to Create Legal Relationship
  • Revenue, Procurement, Outsourcing, Corporate Transaction Contracts

5. Risks in Contracting

  • Managing Risk of Counterparty, Legal, Performance, Credit, AML
  • Risk Management – Minimize, Transfer, Avoid, Absorb
  • Managing Internal Contracting risk – Fraud and Corruption

6. Different Type of Signatures, company stamps

  • Hand signature, system signature
  • Identify forgery & Replicate (Copy & Paste)
  • Detecting Fictitious Company Stamps/ Seals

7. The Law of Evidence and Handling Documents

  • Direct vs Circumstantial Evidence
  • Characteristic of good evidence – Relevance, Sufficient, Competent
  • Documents Handling – Chain of Evidence, indexing and Filing
  • Attorney- Client Privilege
  • Connecting the dots – building the story line

8. Contract terms and Outsourcing terms

  • Unfair, invalidity terms and conditions
  • Duration and penalties for early termination
  • Survivorship – matters that continue after the contract terminates
  • Main contractors and sub-contractors
  • Warranties, Quality, Service Level and performance bonds
  • Fees and costs, price limitations, ceilings and movements
  • Invoicing and payment, overpayments, underpayments
  • Contractor payments and performance
  • Cost control, Change management (variation order)
  • Anyone who interested in reviewing documents and finding out forgery
  • CFO, Financial controllers, finance manager and accountant
  • Procurement and HR professionals
  • Auditor, audit manager, forensic auditor,
  • Compliance and internal control professional

Presentation, group discussion, and case study. Multimedia, game and templates sharing

Kent Hoh

Kent Hoh

Kent Hoh is a prolific trainer in audit, fraud investigation, corporate governance, personal effectiveness, blockchain technology and big data. He has over 20 years’ experience in leading internal audit and forensic investigation functions of MNC in the region and globally. Kent Hoh has also spearheaded several roles in financial management, compliance and corporate governance of technology company. Kent has conducted numerous audit and investigation projects in Americas, Asia and Europe including Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Hungary, Poland, Italy, Germany, USA, etc. Some of these projects involved hundreds of million dollars fraud scheme and syndicated crimes.

Kent holds a master’s degree in business Admin (MBA), Graduate Diploma in Business, Bachelor of Law (Hons), and a Bachelor of Accounting (Hons). Kent Hoh is also a Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) and Certified Internal Auditor (CIA). He possesses the qualifications of the UK Chartered Secretary and Administrator (ICSA), Malaysian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (MICPA), Certified Information System Auditor (CISA) and Certified Bitcoin Expert (CBIE).

Kent Hoh has been an active trainer for large corporations, SME and non-profit-organizations such as Institute of Internal Audit (IIA) Singapore, IIA Malaysia, Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants, Malaysia Institute of Accountants, China IIA, China Enterprise Anti-fraud Alliance, Enterprise Financial Management Association of China. Kent Hoh is also an adjunct lecturer for universities and college in Singapore, Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, China. As an enthusiast in cryptocurrency and a bitcoin mining farm investor, Kent researched heavily into this revolutionized Blockchain technology. He teaches fundamental blockchain and cryptocurrency at various institutions in China.

Currently, Kent Hoh serves as the Vice President of Internal Audit in an SGX listed company. As a strong believer that knowledge sharing create synergy, Kent is very passionate in sharing his experience. He capitalizes his free time conducting training classes and workshops.

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